LA Times Crossword 4 Mar 19, Monday

Advertisement

Constructed by: Kurt Mengel & Jan-Michele Gianette
Edited by: Rich Norris

Today’s Theme (according to Bill): Sin Names

Themed answers are the names of famous people, with a letter S added to their given names to form a possessive:

  • 17A. Poet’s Rambler? : OGDEN’S NASH (from “Ogden Nash”)
  • 23A. “High Noon” actor’s Mini? : GARY’S COOPER (from “Gary Cooper”)
  • 36A. President’s Continental? : ABRAHAM’S LINCOLN (from “Abraham Lincoln”)
  • 47A. “Pillow Talk” actor’s Hornet? : ROCK’S HUDSON (from “Rock Hudson”)
  • 56A. First lady’s Mustang? : BETTY’S FORD (from “Betty Ford”)

Bill’s time: 5m 31s

Bill’s errors: 0

Today’s Wiki-est Amazonian Googlies

Across

1. Moorehead of “Bewitched” : AGNES

Agnes Moorehead was an actress best remembered for her role as Endora, Samantha’s mother on the sitcom “Bewitched”. Moorehead died in 1974 from uterine cancer. She was one of over 90 out of 220 cast and crew members of the 1956 movie “The Conqueror” who all died from cancer, including co-stars Susan Hayward and John Wayne. There is wide speculation that the people working on the film were affected by radiation from eleven nuclear explosions that had taken place the prior year at the Yucca Flats Nevada Test Site that was located nearby, and upwind.

6. Whole bunch : SCAD

The origin of the word “scads”, meaning “lots and lots”, is unclear. That said, “scads” was used to mean “dollars” back in the mid-1800s.

16. “With this __ … ” : RING

“With this ring, I thee wed”.

17. Poet’s Rambler? : OGDEN’S NASH (from “Ogden Nash”)

The Nash Rambler is credited with establishing a new segment in the North American auto market. It is often cited as the first successful American compact car.

Ogden Nash was a poet from Rye, New York who is remembered for his light and quirky verse. Nash had over 500 such works published between 1931 and 1972.

19. Gas brand in Canada : ESSO

The brand name Esso has its roots in the old Standard Oil company as it uses the initial letters of “Standard” and “Oil” (ESS-O). The Esso brand was replaced by Exxon in the US, but ESSO is still used in many other countries.

20. Ronan Farrow’s mom : MIA

Mia Farrow is an energetic, award-winning actress who really hasn’t looked back in her career since her first leading role, in “Rosemary’s Baby” back in 1968. Her on-screen celebrity is matched by the interest created by her personal life. Her first husband was Frank Sinatra, a wedding in 1966 that received a lot of attention partly due to the couple’s age difference (she was 21, he was 50). Her second husband was almost as famous, the magnificent musician André Previn. Farrow then moved in with Woody Allen, a relationship that famously fell apart when Farrow discovered that Allen was having a sexual relationship with Soon-Yi, one of her adopted daughters from the marriage with André Previn.

Ronan Farrow is a former US government advisor in the Obama administration who hosted “Ronan Farrow Daily” on MSNBC from 2014 to 1025. Farrow is the son of actress Mia Farrow and filmmaker Woody Allen. Ronan is estranged from his father, ever since Allen started a relationship with Mia Farrow’s adopted daughter Soon-Yi Previn, who is now Allen’s wife.

23. “High Noon” actor’s Mini? : GARY’S COOPER (from “Gary Cooper”)

The original mini was a fabulous car, one that I drove all over Ireland in my youth. It had a unique front-wheel-drive layout that took up very little space, allowing for a lot of room (relatively speaking) for passengers and baggage. One space-saving trick was to mount the engine transversely, so it sits rotated 90 degrees from the norm. That engine had a capacity of only 848cc. In 1961, a Mini Cooper model was introduced, which was a sporty version. The Mini Cooper was a phenomenal hit, especially after repeated wins in the Monte Carlo Rally. The Mini marque has been owned by BMW since 1994.

I am not a huge fan of western movies, but “High Noon” works for me. The film has a great cast, with Gary Cooper and Grace Kelly in the lead roles. I suppose I like the film because it doesn’t fit the mold as a typical western with lots of predictable action sequences. That said, when “High Noon” first hit theaters it was not popular with audiences, largely because moviegoers were expecting the formulaic western film. One interesting feature of the storyline is that the sequence of events takes place in approximate real time.

Hollywood actor Gary Cooper has been described as a “very uncommon common man”. This is a reference to his uncommon, understated acting style, and the fact that he played the champion of the common man in so many films. Good examples are “Mr. Deeds Goes to Town”, “Meet John Doe”, “Sergeant York”, “The Pride of the Yankees” and “For Whom the Bell Tolls”.

26. Most-feared Hun : ATTILA

In his day, Attila the Hun was the most feared enemy of the Roman Empire, until he died in 453 AD. Attila was the leader of the Hunnic Empire of central Europe and was famous for invading much of the continent. However, he never directly attacked Rome.

29. 2001 scandal company : ENRON

After all the trials following the exposure of fraud at Enron, several of the key players ended up in jail. Andrew Fastow was the Chief Financial Officer. He plea-bargained and received ten years without parole, and became the key witness in the trials of others. Even Fastow’s wife was involved and she was sentenced to one year for helping her husband hide money. Jeffrey Skilling (ex-CEO) was sentenced to 24 years and 4 months. Kenneth Lay (CEO) died in 2006 after he had been found guilty but before he could be sentenced. The accounting firm Arthur Andersen was found guilty of obstruction of justice for shredding thousands of pertinent documents and deleting emails and files (a decision that the Supreme Court later overturned on a technicality). But still, Arthur Andersen collapsed under the weight of the scandal and 85,000 people lost their jobs (despite only a handful being directly involved with Enron).

30. Deity with goat legs : FAUN

Fauns are regarded as the Roman mythological equivalent of the Greek satyrs, but fauns were half-man and half-goat and much more “carefree” in personality than their Hellenic cousins. In the modern age we are quite familiar with Mr. Tumnus, the faun-like character encountered by the children entering the world of Narnia in C. S. Lewis’s “The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe”.

31. Canonized pope who kept 26-Across from invading Rome : ST LEO

The first pope named Leo is now known as Pope Saint Leo the Great. Leo I is famous for meeting with the feared Attila the Hun and persuading him to turn back his invading force that was threatening to overrun Western Europe.

33. Gumshoe : TEC

“Gumshoe” is a slang term for a private detective or private investigator (P.I.). Apparently the term dates back to the early 1900s, and refers to the rubber-soled shoes popular with private detectives at that time.

36. President’s Continental? : ABRAHAM’S LINCOLN (from “Abraham Lincoln”)

The Lincoln Continental series of luxury automobiles was introduced by Ford way back in 1939. The original intent of the “Continental” name was to signify “continental European” exterior styling applied to an American body and chassis. Experts tend to cite the Lincoln Continental as the first personal luxury car.

Abraham Lincoln was born in a one-room log cabin in Hardin County, Kentucky making him the first president born in the West. His formal education was limited to a year and a half of schooling, but fortunately for us, Lincoln was an avid reader and educated himself over the years. Even though he was from a rural area, he avoided hunting and fishing because he did not like to kill animals even for food.

40. Stocking flaw : RUN

A snag is a pull or a tear in a fabric. A snag, particularly in stockings, might lead to a run. And on the other side of the Atlantic, a “run” is called a “ladder”.

41. La Scala solos : ARIAS

La Scala Opera House opened in 1778. It was built on the site of the church of Santa Maria della Scala, which gave the theater its Italian name “Teatro alla Scala”.

42. Dijon darling : AMIE

Dijon is a city in eastern France in the Burgundy region. Dijon is famous for its mustard, a particularly strong variation of the condiment. The European Union doesn’t protect the name “Dijon” so anyone can use it on a label. That seems fair enough to me, given that 90% of the mustard made in and around Dijon is produced using mustard seed imported from Canada!

43. Touch of color : TINCT

To tinct is to add a little color to something. The term “tinct” ultimately derives from the Latin verb “tingere” meaning “to dye”.

47. “Pillow Talk” actor’s Hornet? : ROCK’S HUDSON (from “Rock Hudson”)

Leading man Rock Hudson was born Roy Scherer, Jr. in 1925. Hudson’s Hollywood career really started with dramatic roles in films like “Giant” (1954), and then continued with romantic leads in comedy hits such as “Pillow Talk” (1959). He played in action and suspense movies in the sixties, such as “Tobruk” (1967) and “Ice Station Zebra” (1968). Hudson then moved to the small screen and spent years on the mystery show “McMillan & Wife” and the primetime soap “Dynasty”. Sadly, Hudson is also remembered as the first big star to die from AIDS.

The Hudson Hornet was a compact produced by AMC in the seventies. The Hornet platform was used in the design of the Gremlin, a smaller subcompact that was basically the front half of the Hornet with a truncated rear.

“Pillow Talk” is a marvelous romantic comedy from 1959 that stars Rock Hudson and Doris Day, with Tony Randall in a supporting role. The same trio of actors starred in a trio of movies together: “Pillow Talk” (1959), “Lover Come Back” (1961) and “Send Me No Flowers” (1964).

52. Tour gp. with tees : PGA

The Professional Golfers’ Association (PGA) was founded in 1916 and today has its headquarters (unsurprisingly) in Florida, where so many golfers live. Back in 1916, the PGA was based in New York City.

55. School attended by many English statesmen : ETON

The world-famous Eton College is just a brisk walk from Windsor Castle, which itself is just outside London. Eton is noted for producing many British leaders including David Cameron who was British prime minister from 2010 to 2016. The list of Old Etonians also includes Princes William and Harry, the Duke of Wellington and George Orwell. Author Ian Fleming was also and Eton alumnus, as was Fleming’s iconic character James Bond, although the 007 was expelled by the school.

56. First lady’s Mustang? : BETTY’S FORD (from “Betty Ford”)

Betty Ford was the First Lady and wife of President Gerald Ford, who was in office from 1973 to 1974. Betty Ford was forced to face her alcoholism and addiction to painkillers when her family staged an intervention in 1978. She managed to recover and then famously co-founded the Betty Ford Center in Rancho Mirage, California which treats victims of chemical dependency.

The Ford Mustang car was introduced in 1964. Back then the Mustang wasn’t a brand new design, but was based on the Ford Falcon. The Mustang was the first of the “pony cars”, American models that are compact and affordable, as well as sporty in image and performance.

Down

1. Split bit : ATOM

By some definitions, New Zealand-born physicist and chemist Ernest Rutherford was the first person to “split the atom”. Rutherford bombarded nitrogen with alpha particles and thereby forced neutrons out of the nucleus of the nitrogen atom. The first intentional nuclear “fission” came decades later in the 1930s, with experiments in which larger nuclei were split into smaller nuclei.

2. 1958 Chevalier musical : GIGI

In the lovely musical film “Gigi”, released in 1958, the title song is sung by Louis Jourdan who plays Gaston. My favorite number though, has to be “Thank Heaven for Little Girls” sung by Maurice Chevalier. Many say that “Gigi” is the last in the long line of great MGM musicals. It won a record 9 Academy Awards, a record that only lasted one year. Twelve months later “Ben Hur” won 11 Oscars. In the 1958 film, Gigi was played by the lovely Leslie Caron. A few years earlier, “Gigi” was a successful stage play on Broadway. Chosen for the title role on stage was the then-unknown Audrey Hepburn.

Maurice Chevalier was an actor and singer from Paris who had a remarkably successful career in Hollywood, particularly in the late fifties and early sixties. Chevalier’s most memorable roles were perhaps in “Gigi” (1958), “Can-Can” (1960) and “Fanny” (1961).

6. Cher’s singing partner : SONNY

Singing duo Sonny & Cher started out in the mid-1960s as backing singers working with Phil Spector. The couple married in 1964, and the next year released their breakthrough numbers “Baby Don’t Go” and “I Got You Babe”. Sonny and Cher divorced in 1975, and dissolved their act that same year. Cher moved onto a successful solo career that continues to this day. Sonny Bono was elected as a US Congressman for California in 1995. Sadly, he didn’t finish his term in the House as he died from injuries sustained in a skiing accident in 1998.

9. Head-slapping word from Homer : D’OH!

“The Simpsons” is one of the most successful programs produced by the Fox Broadcasting Company. Homer Simpson’s catchphrase is “D’oh!”, which became such a famous exclamation that it has been included in the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) since 2001. “D’oh!” can be translated as “I should have thought of that!”

12. Racing family name : UNSER

The Unser family seems to have auto racing in their blood. Al Unser, Sr. won the Indy 500 on four occasions. Al’s brother Jerry was the first of the Unsers to compete at Indianapolis. Al’s other brother Bobby, won the Indy three times. Al’s son, Al Junior, won the Indy twice. Al Junior’s son is also a racing driver who competes at the Indy Speedway.

18. Toxin fighters : SERA

Blood serum (plural “sera”) is the clear, yellowish part of blood i.e. that part which is neither a blood cell or a clotting factor. Included in blood serum are antibodies, the proteins that are central to our immune system. Blood serum from animals that have immunity to some disease can be transferred to another individual, hence providing that second individual with some level of immunity. Blood serum used to pass on immunity can be called “antiserum”.

22. Dummy : MORON

The unsavory term “moron” was formerly used by the medical community to describe someone with a degree of mental retardation. The term comes from the Greek “moros” meaning “foolish, dull”. Back in the early 1900s, IQ tests were used to classify those suffering from mental retardation into categories:

  • “idiot” … IQ of 0-20
  • “imbecile” … IQ of 21-50
  • “moron” …IQ of 51-70

23. Actress Torres of “Firefly” : GINA

The actress Gina Torres plays the formidable Jessica Pearson on the USA Network show “Suits”. In real life, Gina is married to the actor Laurence Fishburne. Torres and Fishburne appeared together on the horror TV show “Hannibal”, in which they played a married couple.

“Firefly” is a sci-fi TV show that originally aired in 2002 and 2003. Set in the distant future, the show follows a group of humans who arrive in a new star system in a firefly-class spaceship named Serenity. “Firefly” only ran for 14 episodes, but creator Joss Whedon parlayed the storyline into a 2005 movie titled “Serenity” with basically the same cast.

24. Phones in pockets or purses : CELLS

What we mostly know as a “cell phone” here in North America is more usually referred to as a “mobile phone” in Britain and Ireland. My favorite term for the device is used in Germany, where it is called a “Handy”.

27. “Forbidden” perfume : TABU

Tabu is a whole line of cosmetics and perfumes produced by the House of Dana. The company’s brand names were purchased by a Florida company called Dana Classic Fragrances in 1999.

28. What things do when touched by Midas : TURN TO GOLD

King Midas of Greek mythology might be termed an alchemist as he had the power to turn everything he touched into gold i.e. the Midas touch. The power that he was given became be a curse, as everything he touched turned to gold, including his food and drink and even his children.

31. Actress Jada Pinkett __ : SMITH

Jada Pinkett Smith is an actress from Baltimore, Maryland. Pinkett Smith’s most famous role is the human rebel Niobe in “The Matrix” series of movies. Back in 1990, she auditioned for the TV show “The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air”, to play the girlfriend of the character played by Will Smith. She didn’t get the role but did get Will Smith, as the couple were married in 1997.

32. Flight safety org. : TSA

The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is the agency that employs the good folks who check passengers and baggage at airports.

34. Fans of college sports’ Bulldogs : ELIS

The Yale Bulldogs are the athletic teams of Yale University. The Yale school mascot is “Handsome Dan”, the Yale bulldog. The Bulldogs’ logo features a bulldog in front of a letter Y.

35. Tech product review website : CNET

c|net is an excellent technology website. c|net started out in 1994 as a television network specializing in technology news. The host of “American Idol”, Ryan Seacrest, started off his career as host of a c|net show.

37. Actor Tom who said, “There’s no crying in baseball” : HANKS

Tom Hanks is a such a great actor, I think. He has played so many iconic roles in a relatively short career. Hanks is from California, and studied theater for a couple of years in Hayward, California not far from here. Tom’s son Colin Hanks is one of the stars of the TV comedy “Life in Pieces”. Hanks is married to the talented actress Rita Wilson.

“A League of Their Own” is a comedy drama film released in 1992 that tells a tale about the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League active during WWII. The lead actors were Tom Hanks and Geena Davis. The film spawned one of the most famous quotes in movie history: “There’s no crying in baseball!”

39. Eve’s firstborn : CAIN

In the story of Cain and Abel in the Book of Genesis, Cain murders his brother Abel. Subsequently, God asks Cain, “Where is Abel thy brother?” Cain replies, “I do not know. Am I my brother’s keeper?”

45. “By Jove!” : I SAY!

“By Jove” is a mild oath that calls on the Roman god Jove, who was also known as Jupiter.

46. Tight undergarment : CORSET

A corset is a close-fitting undergarment that is stiffened with a material such as whalebone. Corsets are more usually worn by women, to shape the body. The word “corset” is a diminutive of the Old French “cors” meaning “body”.

48. Michelob diet beer : ULTRA

Michelob Ultra is a diet beer, a beer low in carbohydrates, that was introduced in 2002.

56. Peat source : BOG

When dead plant matter accumulates in marshy areas, it may not fully decay due to a lack of oxygen or acidic conditions. We are familiar with this in Ireland, because this decaying matter can form peat, and we have lots and lots of peat bogs around the country.

57. Organ with a drum : EAR

The eardrum lies at the intersection of the outer ear and middle ear. Also called the tympanic membrane, the eardrum picks up vibrations in air caused by sound waves, and transmits these vibrations to the three tiny bones called the ossicles. These ossicles (hammer, anvil and stirrup) are in the middle ear, and transmit the vibration to the oval window. The oval window is the membrane-covered opening lying at the intersection of the middle ear and the inner ear. The vibrations are transmitted into fluid in the inner ear, and converted into nerve impulses in the cochlea that are transmitted to the brain.

Complete List of Clues/Answers

Across

1. Moorehead of “Bewitched” : AGNES
6. Whole bunch : SCAD
10. This is one : CLUE
14. Sparkling topper : TIARA
15. Extremely : OH SO
16. “With this __ … ” : RING
17. Poet’s Rambler? : OGDEN’S NASH (from “Ogden Nash”)
19. Gas brand in Canada : ESSO
20. Ronan Farrow’s mom : MIA
21. Ding in a car : DENT
22. Parcels (out) : METES
23. “High Noon” actor’s Mini? : GARY’S COOPER (from “Gary Cooper”)
26. Most-feared Hun : ATTILA
29. 2001 scandal company : ENRON
30. Deity with goat legs : FAUN
31. Canonized pope who kept 26-Across from invading Rome : ST LEO
33. Gumshoe : TEC
36. President’s Continental? : ABRAHAM’S LINCOLN (from “Abraham Lincoln”)
40. Stocking flaw : RUN
41. La Scala solos : ARIAS
42. Dijon darling : AMIE
43. Touch of color : TINCT
45. Most slippery, as roads : ICIEST
47. “Pillow Talk” actor’s Hornet? : ROCK’S HUDSON (from “Rock Hudson”)
50. Complex tales : SAGAS
51. Tale teller : LIAR
52. Tour gp. with tees : PGA
55. School attended by many English statesmen : ETON
56. First lady’s Mustang? : BETTY’S FORD (from “Betty Ford”)
59. Has a cold, say : AILS
60. Rowboat movers : OARS
61. Like horror film music : EERIE
62. Fuss : TO-DO
63. Cloudy : GRAY
64. Most high schoolers : TEENS

Down

1. Split bit : ATOM
2. 1958 Chevalier musical : GIGI
3. Nothing, in Spain : NADA
4. Before, poetically : ERE
5. Open-toed shoe : SANDAL
6. Cher’s singing partner : SONNY
7. Online talks : CHATS
8. Beast of burden : ASS
9. Head-slapping word from Homer : D’OH!
10. Sleazy sort, in slang : CREEPO
11. “Pay attention when I speak” : LISTEN TO ME
12. Racing family name : UNSER
13. They may clash on film sets : EGOS
18. Toxin fighters : SERA
22. Dummy : MORON
23. Actress Torres of “Firefly” : GINA
24. Phones in pockets or purses : CELLS
25. “That’s __ haven’t heard” : ONE I
26. A distant place : AFAR
27. “Forbidden” perfume : TABU
28. What things do when touched by Midas : TURN TO GOLD
31. Actress Jada Pinkett __ : SMITH
32. Flight safety org. : TSA
34. Fans of college sports’ Bulldogs : ELIS
35. Tech product review website : CNET
37. Actor Tom who said, “There’s no crying in baseball” : HANKS
38. Curved parts : ARCS
39. Eve’s firstborn : CAIN
44. “No problem for me!” : I CAN SO!
45. “By Jove!” : I SAY!
46. Tight undergarment : CORSET
47. Betting odds, e.g. : RATIO
48. Michelob diet beer : ULTRA
49. Rattlebrained : DITSY
50. Chair or sofa : SEAT
52. Skin opening : PORE
53. Broad smile : GRIN
54. Citrus drinks : ADES
56. Peat source : BOG
57. Organ with a drum : EAR
58. Lawyer’s charge : FEE

12 thoughts on “LA Times Crossword 4 Mar 19, Monday”

  1. Fun puzzle, but having been a victim of Enron’s shenanigans, I
    always sort of cringe when I see a clue that refers to that company.

  2. We got it all in about 40 minutes, good for us.

    Didn’t understand TEC. I knew what a gumshoe was, but had the answer
    not fit by fill ins, I would not have seen it. I can see that it is part of the word “detective”, i.e. someone who detects. Had fun with the long car
    answers.

  3. Todays puzzle was really fun to do and the names with the cars was clever. Once I got the first top 2 theme answers my brain kicked in what the theme was, and got done pretty quick. Makes my brainpan happy starting the day with a good, fun puzzle. yea!

  4. TGIM
    Cute, and very easy, except a Natick over one letter -C or K at TEC crosses CNET. This old lady better check out CNET to find out what it’s about. Iwas told Ishouldn’t call myself old, but “old school,”

  5. You ain’t old,… Jane (Sfingi) you are a lady with experience!

    I had a good time with this puzzle TGIM. !!!!
    It was fun fun fun guessing all the old car names … I used to own a Gremlim, rented a Lincoln and drove a Mustang for two years..

    Now I know why there are Mini Coopers in. BMW dealership … it used to look so incongruous!?!?!

    You put a ‘h’ in tec … a tech .. and the amateur detective turns into an important computer expert!!?!!! … whom we will need, one day or another!

    Thanks Bill for all the information about the main clues especially on Gary Cooper and High Noon !!

    Have a great day and a great week ahead , all you all…

  6. LAT: 5:58, 1 error (Natick 23A-23D). WSJ: 5:54, no errors. Newsday: 5:15, no errors. New Yorker: 26:50, 2 errors. BEQ: 20:23, no errors. CHE: 12:14, no errors.

  7. Very late to the party today, as I’ve been recovering from shoveling snow over the weekend.

    LAT: 6:45, no errors. Newsday: 5:32, no errors. WSJ: 7:19, no errors. BEQ: 18:08, no errors. CHE: 12:31, no errors.

    New Yorker: 3:15:17 (total elapsed time), no errors. I got interrupted several times as I worked on this one and then, near the end, I was faced with an entry so weird that I had trouble believing it: it turns out that a cherub, as described in the Bible, is not a cute little naked baby with wings, but a fearsome creature with four faces (lion, ox, eagle, and human)! Who knew? (Maybe I did, once upon a time, in my Bible-reading days, but all memory of it had long since evaporated.) Two of the crossing entries were not much help. I tried to fit in the half-remembered SHELOB, until I finally remembered that was the giant spider in “Lord of the Rings”. In any case, after letting the puzzle age for a bit, I went with what turned out to be the correct answers, for the win … 😜.)

    I bombed on last Friday’s WSJ meta, though, and I’m royally peeved with myself, as I had all the pieces necessary for the solution written down and just couldn’t put them together. I even jotted down what turned out to be the answer: the name of a person familiar to me from real life as well as crosswords. Oh, well, next Friday isn’t far away … 😜.)

    1. I forgot to mention that BEQ goes full-on foul-mouth in today’s puzzle, with a 15-square entry right in the middle that you ain’t gonna miss, nohow, no way. (And I’m ashamed to say that I knew the answer, right out of the starting blocks … 😳.) Oh,well, as my mother used to say … it is what it is … 😜.

  8. Hi all!🐔

    No errors and a fun theme– TGIM indeed! 😏

    Just a few days ago I was talking about High Noon. I’ve never seen it but have always wanted to because of the real-time angle.

    FWIW– I’m currently bingeing VEEP…never did watch it. Excellent writing! Plenty of expletives….likely too much of that for some viewers….the foul language is almost like an additional character!😁

    Be well ~~🍺

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.